*The built-in xrange() method in Python 2 does not exist in Python 3. In Python 3, we can use the function range() to produce a range of numbers. If you try to use xrange() in a Python 3 program, you will raise the NameError: name ‘xrange’ is not defined.*

*To solve this error, use the range() function instead of xrange() on Python 3. *

*This tutorial will go through the error in detail and how to solve it with code examples.*

## Table of contents

## NameError: name ‘xrange’ is not defined

The NameError exception occurs when the object we want to call is not initialized in the current scope of the Python program. The `xrange()`

function was replaced by `range()`

. The syntax of range() is as follows:

range(start, stop, step)

**Parameters**

- start:
*Optional*. An integer number specifying which position to start from. Default is 0. - stop:
*Required*. An integer number specifying which position to stop (not included). - step:
*Optional.*An integer number specifying the increment. Default is 1.

The range function returns an object, whereas the `xrange()`

function generates a list of numbers.

## Example

Let’s look at an example where we want to calculate the square of each number from 2 to a specified number. Let’s look at the code:

import sys # Check Python version print(sys.version) end_point = int(input("Enter the number to calculate squares up to: ")) for i in xrange(2, end_point): print(f'{i} squared = {i**2}')

Let’s run the code to see what happens:

3.8.8 (default, Apr 13 2021, 12:59:45) [Clang 10.0.0 ] Enter the number to calculate squares up to: 10 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- NameError Traceback (most recent call last) <ipython-input-2-b0efe34caea9> in <module> 7 end_point = int(input("Enter the number to calculate squares up to: ")) 8 ----> 9 for i in xrange(2, end_point): 10 print(f'{i} squared = {i**2}') 11 NameError: name 'xrange' is not defined

We get the NameError because we are using Python 3. We can only use the `xrange()`

function in Python 2

### Solution #1: Use range()

We can use the `range()`

function instead of `xrange()`

to solve this error. Let’s look at the revised code:

import sys # Check Python version print(sys.version) end_point = int(input("Enter the number to calculate squares up to: ")) # Replace xrange with range for i in range(2, end_point): print(f'{i} squared = {i**2}')

Let’s run the code to see the result:

3.8.8 (default, Apr 13 2021, 12:59:45) [Clang 10.0.0 ] Enter the number to calculate squares up to: 10 2 squared = 4 3 squared = 9 4 squared = 16 5 squared = 25 6 squared = 36 7 squared = 49 8 squared = 64 9 squared = 81

The last number to calculate the square of is `9`

because the `range()`

function is not inclusive of the `stop`

parameter.

### Solution #2: Change Python Major Version from 3 to 2

If you want to use an earlier Python major version, you can use Conda to create a virtual environment with a Python 2 interpreter. To create a virtual environment, use the following command:

conda create -n py27 python=2.7

Then activate the environment using:

conda activate py27

You should see “py27” next to the command line prompt in parenthesis.

Let’s check what Python version we are using the sys module

import sys print(sys.version)

2.7.16 |Anaconda, Inc.| (default, Sep 24 2019, 16:55:38) [GCC 4.2.1 Compatible Clang 4.0.1 (tags/RELEASE_401/final)]

Then, we can use the `xrange()`

function. Note that we also have to change the print statements not to include parentheses. We use parentheses for print statements in Python 3.

end_point = int(input("Enter the number to calculate squares up to: ")) for i in xrange(2, end_point): print i, 'squared =', i**2

Let’s run the code to get the output:

Enter the number to calculate squares up to: 10 2 squared = 4 3 squared = 9 4 squared = 16 5 squared = 25 6 squared = 36 7 squared = 49 8 squared = 64 9 squared = 81

Generally, you want to avoid using Python 2 as this version is no longer supported, which means any Python 2 library or method you use may have bugs or security issues. It would be best to choose the `range()`

solution in Python 3.

## Summary

Congratulations on reading to the end of this tutorial! The NameError: name ‘xrange’ is not defined occurs when you try to call the xrange() method using Python major version 3. You can only use `xrange()`

in Python 2.

To solve this error, use the `range()`

method when using Python 3. Otherwise, revert to Python 2 by creating a virtual environment.

For further reading on deprecated functions in Python 2, go to the articles:

- How to Solve AttributeError: ‘dict’ object has no attribute ‘iteritems’
- How to Solve Python NameError: name ‘raw_input’ is not defined

To learn more about Python for data science and machine learning, go to the online courses page on Python for the most comprehensive courses available.

Have fun and happy researching!

Suf is a research scientist at Moogsoft, specializing in Natural Language Processing and Complex Networks. Previously he was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Data Science working on adaptations of cutting-edge physics analysis techniques to data-intensive problems in industry. In another life, he was an experimental particle physicist working on the ATLAS Experiment of the Large Hadron Collider. His passion is to share his experience as an academic moving into industry while continuing to pursue research. Find out more about the creator of the Research Scientist Pod here and sign up to the mailing list here!